Publications: Triboconditioning and -analytics location Karlsruhe


Morstein, C. E.; Graphite lubrication mechanism under high mechanical load, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie KIT (2023)

Cihan, E.; Structure evolution in tribological interfaces studied by multilayer model alloys (Dissertation) Karlsruher Institut für Technologie KIT (2019)

Korres, S.; On-Line topographic measurements of lubricated metallic sliding surfaces - A case study of lubricated buried interfaces; Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien 20; Karlsruher Institut für Technologie KIT (Hrsg.) KIT Scientific Publishing, Karlsruhe (2013) Link

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Peeters, S.; Kuwahara, T.; Härtwig, F.; Makowski, S.; Weihnacht, V.; Lasagni, A. F.; Dienwiebel, M.; Moseler, M.; Moras, G., Surface depassivation via B-O dative bonds affects the friction performance of B-doped carbon coatings, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 16/14 (2024) 1812-18123 Link

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Eickworth, J.; Wagner, J.; Daum, P.; Dienwiebel, M.; Rühle, T., Gas phase lubrication study with an organic friction modifier, Lubrication Science 35/1 (2023) 40-55 Link

König, T.; Kimpel, T.; Kürten, D.; Kailer, A.; Dienwiebel, M., Influence of atmospheres on the friction and wear of cast iron against chromium plated steel at high temperatures, Wear 522 (2023) Art. 204695, 17 pp. Link

MacLucas, T.; Klemenz, A.; Grünewald, P.; Presser, V.; Mayrhofer, L.; Moras, G.; Suarez, S.; Dienwiebel, M.; Mücklich, F.; Moseler, M., Multiwall carbon nanotubes for solid lubrication of highly loaded contacts, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6/3 (2023) 1755-1769 Link

Romero, P. A.; Brink, A.; Scherge, M.; Moseler, M., Shear induced dynamic grain-refinement in sliding polycrystalline metal surfaces, High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '20; Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center (HLRS) 2020; Nagel, W. E.; Körner, D. H.; Resch, M. M. (Eds.); Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, Switzerland (2022) 169-183 Link

Walter, M.; Linsler, D.; König, T.; Gäbert, S.; Reinicke, S.; Moseler, M.; Mayrhofer, L., Mechanochemical activation of anthracene [4+4] cycloadducts, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 14/6 (2023) 1445-1451 Link

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Morstein, C.E.; Klemenz, A.; Dienwiebel, M.; Moseler, M., Humidity-dependent lubrication of highly loaded contacts by graphite and a structural transition to turbostratic carbon, Nature Communications 13/1 (2022) Art. 5958, 16 pp. Link

Linsler, D.; Gäbert, C.; Reinicke, S.; Rangova, T.; Schlüter, F.; Dienwiebel, M., Reversible viscosity tuning using UV light, in Proc. of 23rd International Colloquium Tribology: Industrial and Automotive Lubrication 2022 Band 23; Fatemi, A.; Pauschitz, A.; Topolovec-Miklozic, K. (Hrsg.); expert verlag, Deutschland (2022) 65-66

Schütte, M.; Ehrich, J.; Linsler, D.; Hanke, S., Effects of microstructure modification by Friction Surfacing on wear behaviour of Al alloys with different Si contents, Materials 15/5 (2022) Art. 1641, 17 pp. Link

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Joerger, A.; Morstein, C.; Dienwiebel, M. Albers, A., A numerical approach for the determination of graphite deformation behaviour by using microtribological pressure tests, Wear 476 (2021) Art. 203652, 9 pp. Link

Linsler, D.; Ruebling, F.; Greiner, C., Subsurface microstructural evolution during scratch testeing on bcc iron, Metals 11/8 (2021) Art. 1258, 10 pp. Link

Mangolini, F.; Li, Z.; Marcus, M.A.; Schneider, R.; Dienwiebel, M., Quantification of the carbon bonding state in amorphous carbon materials: A comparison between EELS and NEXAFS measurements, Carbon 173 (2021) 557-564 Link

Morstein, C. E.; Dienwiebel, M., Graphite lubrication mechanisms under high mechanical load, Wear 477 (2021) Art. 2033794, 13 pp. Link

Savio, D.; Hamann, J.; Romero, P. A.; Klingshirn, C.; Bactavatchalou, R.; Dienwiebel, M.; Moseler, M., Multiscale friction simulation of dry polymer contacts: Reaching experimental length scales by coupling molecular dynamics and contact mechanics, Tribology Letters 69/2 (2021) Art. 70, 16 pp. Link

Scherge, M.; Stoll, M.; Moseler, M., On the influence of microtopography on the sliding performance of cross country skis, Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering 7 (2021) Art. 659995, 10 pp. Link

Stoyanov, P.; Merz, R.; Stricker, M.; Kopnarski, M.; Dienwiebel, M., Achieving ultra-low friction with diamond/metal systems in extreme environments, Materials 14/14 (2021) Art. 3791, 9 pp. Link

Takagi, K.; Hashamova, E.; Dienwiebel, M.; Mine, Y.; Takashima, K., Correlation of wear behaviour and microstructural evolution in Mg–Zn–Y alloys with long-period stacking ordered phase, Wear 482-483 (2021) Art. 203983

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Cihan, E.; Jungjohann, K.; Argibay, N.; Chandross, M.; Dienwiebel, M., Effect of environment on microstructure evolution and friction of Au-Ni multilayers, Tribology Letters 68/1 (2020) Article 30, 10 pp. Link

Dienwiebel, M.; Honselmann, J.; Wagner, J.; Daum, P.; Wilke, P.; Rühle, T., In situ studies on the competitive adsorption of lubricant additives, Tribologie und Schmierungstechnik 67/4 (2020) 36-37 Link

Eickworth, J.; Aydin, E.; Dienwiebel, M.; Rühle, T.; Wilke, P.; Umbach, T. R., Synergistic effects of antiwear and friction modifier additives, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology 72/8 (2020) 1019-1025 Link

Faller, J.; Scherge, M., The identification of an adequate stressing level to find the proper running-in conditions of a lubricated DLC-Metal-System, Lubricants 8/9 (2020) Art. 88, 7 pp. Link

Gäbert, C.; Rosenstingl, T.; Linsler, D.; Dienwiebel, M.; Reinicke, S., Programming viscosity in silicone oils: Reversible tuning of rheological properties in 9-anthracene ester-terminated polydimethylsiloxanes, ACS Applied Polymer Materials 2/12 (2020) 5460-5468 Link

Kümmel, D.; Linsler, D.; Schneider, R.; Schneider, J., Surface engineering of a titanium alloy for tribological applications by nanosecond-pulsed laser, Tribology International 150 (2020) Art. 106376, 9 pp. Link

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Cihan, E.; Strömer, H.; Leiste, H.; Stüber, M.; Diewiebel, M., Low friction of metallic multilayers by formation of a shear-induced alloy, Scientific Reports 9 (2019) Artikel-Nr. 9480, 10 pp. Link

Lechthaler, B.; Ochs, G.; Mücklich, F.; Dienwiebel, M., Evolution of the true contact area of laser textured tungsten under dry sliding conditions, Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering 5 (2019) Artikel-Nr. 3, 6 pp. Link

Liu, L.; Sheng, Y.; Liu, M.; Dienwiebel, M.; Zhang, Z.; Dastan, D., Formation of the third bodies of steel sliding against brass under lubricated conditions, Tribology International 140 (2019) 105727 1-7 Link

Romero, P.; Mayrhofer, L.; Stoyanov P.; Merz, R.; Kopnarski, M.; Dienwiebel, M.; Moseler, M., Atomistic insights into lubricated tungsten/diamond sliding contacts, Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering 5 (2019) Artikel-Nr. 6, 11 pp. Link

Böttcher, R.; Winkler, H.-J.; Dienwiebel, M.; Scherge, M., Tribology of wire arc spray coatings under the influence of regenerative fuels, Lubricants 6/3 Special Issue Applied Nanotechnology (2018) Art. 60, 9 pp. Link

Dienwiebel, M.; Stoyanov, P., In situ digital holography for 3D topography analysis of tribological experiments, Advanced Analytical Methods in Tribology; Dienwiebel, M.; De Barros Bouchet, M.-I. (Eds.); Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018, Cham, Schweiz (2018) 289-305 Link

Scherge, M.; Böttcher, R.; Spagni, A.; Marchetto, D., High-speed measurements of steel–ice friction: Experiment vs. Calculation, Lubricants 6/1 (2018) Art. 26, 8 pp. Link

Scherge, M., The running-in of lubricated metal-metal contacts - a review on ultra-low wear systems, Lubricants 6/2 (2018) Art. 54, 9 pp. Link

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Böttcher, R.; Seidelmann, M.; Scherge, M.; Sliding of UHMWPE on ice: Experiment vs. Modeling; Cold Regions Science and Technology 141 (2017) 171-180 Link

Linsler, D.; Kümmel, D.; Nold, E.; Dienwiebel, M.; Analysis of the running-in of thermal spray coatings by time-dependent stribeck maps; Wear 376-377/Part B (2017) 1467-1474 Link

Meyer, F.; Blum, M.; Benkert, A.; Hauschild, D.; Jeyachandran, Y. L.; Wilks; R. G.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; Heske, C.; Reinert, F.; Zharnikov, M.; Weinhardt, L.; X-ray emission spectroscopy of proteinogenic amino acids at all relevant absorption edges; The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 121/27 (2017) 6549–6556 Link

Stoyanov, P.; Schneider, J.; Rinke, M.; Ulrich, S.; Nold, E.; Dienwiebel, M.; Stüber, M.; Microstructure, mechanical properties and friction behavior of magnetron-sputtered V-C coatings; Surface and Coatings Technology 321 (2017) 366-377 Link

Brink, A.; Lichtenberg, K.; Scherge, M.; The influence of the initial near-surface microstructure and imposed stress level on the running-in characteristics of lubricated steel contacts; Wear 360-361 (2016) 114-120 Link

Linsler, D.; Schröckert, F.; Scherge, M.; Influence of subsurface plastic deformation on the running-in behavior of a hypoeutectic AlSi alloy; Tribology International 100 (2016) 224-230 Link

Scherge, M.; Böttcher, R.; Kürten, D.; Linsler, D.; Multi-phase friction and wear reduction by copper nanoparticles; Lubricants 4/4 (2016) 13 pp. Link

Scherge, M.; Brink, A.; Linsler, D.; Tribofilms forming in oil-lubricated contacts; Lubricants 4/3 (2016) 9 pp. Link

Stoyanov, P.; Shockley, J. M.; Dienwiebel, M.; Chromik, R. R.; Combining in situ and online approaches to monitor interfacial processes in lubricated sliding contacts; MRS Communications 6/3 (2016) 301-308 Link

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Fakih, B.; Dienwiebel, M.; The structure of tribolayers at the commutator and brush interface: A case study of failed and non-failed DC motors; Tribology International 92 (2015) 21-28 Link

Hirte, T.; Feuerfeil, R.; Perez-Solorzano, V.; Wagner, T.A.; Scherge, M.; Influence of composition on the wear properties of boron carbonitride (BCN) coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering; Surface and Coatings Technology 284 (2015) 94-100 Link

Linsler, D.; Schlarb, T.; Weingärtner, T.; Scherge, M.; Influence of subsurface microstructure on the running-in of an AlSi alloy; Wear 332-333 (2015) 926-931 Link

Marchetto, D.; Feser, T.; Dienwiebel, M.; Microscale study of frictional properties of graphene in ultra high vacuum; Friction 3/2 (2015) 161-169 Link

Scherge, M.; Linsler, D.; Schlarb, T.; The running-in corridor of lubricated metal-metal contacts; Wear 342-343 (2015) 60-64 Link

Stoyanov, P.; Merz, R.; Romero, P.; Wählisch, F.C.; Torrents Abad, O.; Gralla, R.; Stemmer, P.; Kopnarski, M.; Moseler, M.; Bennewitz, R.; Dienwiebel, M.; Surface softening in metal-ceramic sliding contacts: an experimental and numerical Investigation; ACS Nano 9/2 (2015) 1478–1491 Link

Stoyanov, P.; Linsler, D.; Schlarb, T.; Scherge, M.; Schwaiger, R.; Dependence of tribofilm characteristics on the running-in behavior of aluminum–silicon alloys; Journal of Materials Science 50/16 (2015) 5524-5532 Link

Beckmann, N.; Romero, P.A.; Linsler, D.; Dienwiebel, M.; Stolz, U.; Moseler, M.; Gumbsch, P.; Origins of folding instabilities on polycrystalline metal surfaces; Physical Review Applied 2/6 (2014) 064004 1-7 Link

Scherge, M., Microtribology, Encyclopedia of Lubricants and Lubrication Vol. 3; Mang, T. (Ed.); Springer, Berlin (2014) 1179-1188 Link

Stoyanov, P.; Romero, P.A.; Merz, R.; Kopnarski, M.; Stricker, M.; Stemmer, P.; Dienwiebel, M.; Moseler, M.; Nanoscale sliding friction phenomena at the interface of diamond-like carbon and tungsten; Acta Materialia 67 (2014) 395-408 Link

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Dienwiebel, M.; Feser, T.; Korres; S.; Seeing the third-body formation of metallic tribosystems by novel on-line tribometry; in Proc. of 5th World Tribology Congress WTC 2013; Raparelli, T.; Gola, M. (Eds.); Curran Associates, Inc. Red Hook, NY, USA(2013) 1485-1486 Link

Dienwiebel, M.; Feser, T.; Stoyanov, P.; Tribochemical effects during running-in of metals and alloys; in Book of Abstracts 40th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology & Tribochemistry Forum 2013; CCSD Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe, Villeurbanne, France (2013) 5/203 Link

Feser, T.; Stoyanov, P.; Mohr, F.; Dienwiebel, M.; The running-in mechanisms of binary brass studied by in situ topography measurements; Wear 303/1-2 (2013) 465-472 Link

Korres, S.; Feser, T.; Dienwiebel, M.; A new approach to link the friction coefficient with topography measurements during plowing; Wear 303/1-2 (2013) 202-210 Link

Rehl, A.; Klimesch, C.; Scherge, M.; Low-friction, wear-resistant aluminum-silicon cylinder bore surfaces; MTZ worldwide 74/12 (2013) 32-37 Link

Scherge, M.; Böttcher, R.; Richter, M.; Gurgel, U.; High-speed ice friction experiments under lab-conditions – on the influence of speed and normal force; ISRN Tribology 2013 (2013) 703202 1-6 Link

Scherge, M.; Kramlich, J.; Böttcher, R.; Hoppe, T.; Running-in due to material transfer of lubricated steel/PA46 (aliphatic polyamide) contacts; Wear 301/1-2 (2013) 758-762 Link

Scherge, M.; Sarembe, S.; Kiesow, A.; Petzold, M.; Dental tribology at the microscale; Wear 297/1-2 (2013) 1040-1044 Link

van Wijk, M.M.; Dienwiebel, M.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Fasolino, A.; Superlubric to stick-slip sliding of incommensurate graphene flakes on graphite; Physical Review B 88/23 (2013) 235423 1-6 Link

Korres, S.; Feser, T.; Dienwiebel, M.; In situ observation of wear particle formation on lubricated sliding surfaces; Acta Materialia 60/1 (2012) 420-429 Link

Marchetto, D.; Benzig, R.; Korres, S.; Dienwiebel, M.; Design and testing of ultrahigh vacuum microtribometer; Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces 6/3 (2012) 95-101 Link

Marchetto, D.; Held, C.; Hausen, F.; Wählisch, M.; Dienwiebel, M.; Bennewitz, R.; Friction and wear on single-layer epitaxial graphene in multi-asperity contacts; Tribology Letters 48/1 (2012) 77-82 Link

Antusch, S.; Dienwiebel, M.; Nold, E.; Albers, P.; Spicher, U.; Scherge, M.; On the tribochemical action of engine soot; Wear 269/1-2 (2010) 1-12 Link

Berlet, P.; Dienwiebel, M.; Scherge, M.; The effect of sample finishing on the tribology of metal/metal lubricated contacts; Wear 268/11-12 (2010) 1518-1523 Link

Korres, S.; Dienwiebel, M.; Design and construction of a novel tribometer with online topography and wear measurement; Review of Scientific Instruments 81/6 (2010) 063904 1-7 Link

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Gebeshuber, I. C.; Drack, M.; Scherge, M.; Tribology in biology; Tribology - Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces 2/4 (2008) 200-212 Link

Dienwiebel, M.; Pöhlmann, K.; Scherge, M.; Origins of the wear resistance of AlSi cylinder bore surfaces studied by surface analytical tools; Tribology International 40/10-1 (2007) 1597-1602

Opitz, A.; Scherge, M.; Ahmed, S. I.-U.; Schaefer, J. A.; A comparative investigation of thickness measurements of ultra-thin water films by scanning probe technique; Journal of Applied Physics 101/6 (2007) 064310 1-5 Link

Shakhvorostov, D.; Gleising, B.; Büscher, R.; Dudzinsky, W.; Fischer, A.; Scherge, M.; Microstructure of tribologically induced nanolayers produced under ultra-low wear rates; Wear 263/7-12 (2007) 1259-1265

Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F.; Reichel, M.; Scherge, M.; Gerve, A.; Thin layer activation of large areas for wear study; Wear 26/11-12 (2006) 1397-1400

Liu, Y.; Gubisch, M.; Hild, W.; Scherge, M.;. Schaefer, J. A.; Nanoscale multilayer WC/C coatings developed for nanopositioning, part II: Friction and wear; Thin Solid Films 488/1-2 (2005) 140-148

Opitz, A.; Ahmed, S. I.-U.; Scherge, M.; Schaefer, J. A.; Nanofriction mechanisms derived from the dependence of friction on load and sliding velocity from air to UHV on hydrophilic silicon; Tribology Letters 20/3-4 (2005) 2297-234

Shakhvorostov, D.; Pöhlmann, K.; Scherge, M.; An energetic approach to friction, wear and temperature; Wear 257/1-3 (2004) 124-130

Shakhvorostov, D.; Pöhlmann, K.; Scherge, M.; Structure and mechanical properties of tribologically induced nanolayers; Wear 260/4-5 (2004) 433-437

Scherge, M.; Martin, J. M.; Pöhlmann, K.; Characterization of wear debris of systems operated under low wear-rate conditions; Wear 260/4-5 (2004) 458-461

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Hild, W.; Schaefer, J. A.; Scherge, M.; The effect of wetting on the microhydrodynamics of surfaces lubricated with water and oil; Wear 254/9 (2003) 871-875

Opitz, A.; Ahmed, S. I.-U.; Schaefer, J. A .; Scherge, M.; Nanofriction of silicon oxide surfaces covered with thin water films; Wear 254/9 (2003) 924-929

Scherge, M.; Chakhvorostov, D.; Pöhlmann, K.; Fundamental wear mechanisms of metals; Wear 255/1-6 (2003) 395-400

Scherge, M.; Pöhlmann, K.; Gerve, A.; Wear Measurement using Radio-Nuclide-Technique (RNT); Wear 254/9 (2003) 801-817

Gorb, S. N.; Beutel, R. G.; Gorb, E.; V.; Jiao, Y.; Kastner, V.; Niederegger, S.; Popov, V.L.; Scherge, M.; Schwarz, U.; Vötsch, W.; Structural design and biomechanics of friction-based releasable attachment devices in insects; Integrative and Comparative Biology 42/6 (2002)  1127-1139

Nevshupa, R.A.; Scherge, M.; Ahmed, S.I.-U.; Transitional friction behavior of hydrophilic silicon induced by spontaneous water adsorption; Surface Science 517/1 (2002) 17-28

Opitz, A.; Ahmed, S. I.; Schaefer, J. A.; Scherge, M.; Friction in thin water films: A nanotribological study; Surface Science 504/1-2 (2002) 199-207

Scherge, M.; Schaefer, J. A.; Macro and Microtribology – Similar Results, Different Origins?; Lubrication Science 7/3 (2001) 245-253

Gorb, S. N.; Jiao, Y.; Scherge, M.; Ultrastructural architecture and mechanical properties of attachment pads in Tettigonia viridissima; Journal of Comparative Physiology A 186/9 (2000) 821-831

Gorb, S. N.; Scherge, M.; Biological microtribology: Anisotropy in frictional forces of orthopteran attachment pads reflects ultrastructure of highly-deformable material; Proceedings of Royal Society B 267/1149 (2000) 1239-1244

Jiao, Y.; Scherge, M.; Gorb, S. N.; Adhesion measured on the attachment pads of the Tettigonia viridissima (Orthoptera, Insecta); Journal of Experimental Biology  203/12 (2000) 1887-1895

Liu, H.; Ahmed, S. I.; Scherge, M.; Microtribological properties of silicon and silicon coated with diamond like carbon, octadecyltrichlorosilane and stearic acid cadmium salt films: A comparative study; Thin Solid Films 381/1 (2000) 135-142

Scherge, M.; Gorb, S. N.; Using Biology to Design MEMS; Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 10/3 (2000) 359-364

Scherge, M.;  Gorb, S. N.; Microtribology of biological materials; Tribology Letters 8/1 (2000) 1-7

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Scherge, M.; Li, X.; Schaefer, J. A.; The effect of water on friction of MEMS; Tribology Letters 6/3-4 (1999) 215-220

Scherge, M.; Schaefer, J. A.; Mollenhauer, O.; Spiller, F.; Micromechanical thin-film characterization; MRS Proceedings 569 (1999) 139

Klotzbücher, T.; Scherge, M.; Mergens, M.; Wesner, D. A.; Kreutz, E. W.; Deposition of carbon nitride thin films in a hybrid r.f.-PLD technique; Surface and Coatings Technology 98/1-3 (1998) 1072–1078 Link

Scherge, M.; Büchner, H.; Jäger, G.; Schaefer, J. A.; Interferometric detection of adhesion induced nano-deflections; Journal of Optics 29/1 (1998) 23-27

Scherge, M.; Li, X.; Schaefer, J. A.; Nanotribological improvements due to surface chemistry modification; MRS Proceedings 522 (1998) 481-486

Scherge, M.; Schaefer, J. A.; Surface modification and mechanical mroperties of bulk silicon; Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS, Proc. of NSF/AFOSR/ASME Workshop on Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS 1997; Bhushan, B. (Ed.); Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands (1998) 529-537

Scherge, M.; Schaefer, J. A.; Microtribological investigations of stick/slip phenomena using a novel oscillatory friction and adhesion tester; Tribology Letters 4/1 (1998) 37-42

Chu, X.; Scherge, M.; Bauer, C.L.; Mullins, W. W.; Stress distribution and mass transport along grain boundaries during electromigration; Materials Science Forum 207-209 (1996) 457-460

Gatzen, H. H.; Ma, X.; Scherge, M.; Jhon, M. S.;. Bauer, C. L.; Observations regarding the tribological properties of SiC and AlTiC sliders; IEEE Transaction on Magnetics 32/5 (1996) 3783-3785

Sui, X.; Scherge, M.; Kryder, M. H.; Snyder, J. E.; Harris, V. G.; Koon, N. C.; Barium ferrite thin-film recording media; Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 155/1-3 (1996) 132-139

Scherge, M.; Bauer, C. L.; Mullins, W. W.; Stress distribution and mass transport along grain boundaries during steady-state-electromigration; Acta Metallurgica et Materialia 43/9 (1995) 3525-3538

Scherge, M.; Sui, X.; Bauer, C. L.; Jhon, M. S.; Kryder, M. H.; Tribological properties of barium ferrite films; IEEE Transaction on Magnetics 31/6 (1995) 2928-2930

Zou, P.; Scherge, M.; Lambeth, D.; Tribological characterization of carbon nitride hard disk overcoat at quasi-contact operating conditions; IEEE Transaction on Magnetics 31/6 (1995) 2985-2987

Scherge, M.; Electromigration – simulation and experiment; AIP Conference Proceedings 305/1 (1993) 290

Scherge, M.; Breternitz, V.; Knedlik, C.; Electromigration behaviour in Al metallizations of integrated circuits; Microelectronics and Reliability 32 /1-2 (1992) 21-24

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