Joining Glass

© Fraunhofer IWM
Demonstrator of a glass-glass joint for solar cells.

We develop joints which account for the chemical, thermal and mechanical properties of glass as a material. To this end, we functionalize glass surfaces using specially developed multilayer coatings, evaluate brazing materials and adapt the process parameters. Our goal is to match the base material, solder material and process control in such a way that a dimensionally stable and vacuum-tight joint can be created. As a result, the strengths of vacuum-insulating glass used in windows can also be maintained throughout its entire service life.

The joining processes of glass-glass/glass-metal connections developed at Fraunhofer IWM can create sustainable solutions by using glass as a material. Vacuum insulation glass reduces the energy loss in buildings, and perovskite solar cells generate electricity from the energy of sunlight with high efficiency and low-resource use.

Services | Expertise

© iStock
Glass-to-metal joints enable highly insulating windows and are thus a key component of a more sustainable building sector.
  • Layer development for metallization and soldering of glass
  • Development of low-stress composites for large joint dimensions
  • Mechanical characterization and qualification of joints
  • Process simulation for joining technologies for the evaluation of soldered joints





to top

Application examples

  • Vacuum-insulating glass—realization of highly insulating panes by creating a high vacuum and subsequent gas-pressure-tight sealing
  • Joining and sealing of glass-glass joints using glass solder

to top

Facilities | Measurement possibilities

  • Joining furnace
  • Coating system
  • Leak test
  • Soldering unit
  • Radiant heater

to top


  • Ramirez, E.C.;  Klemenčič, R.;  Klučka, M.; Lang, B.; Beisel, S.; Altorfer, H.; Koebel, M.M.; Malfait, W.J.; Large-scale anodic bonding mediated by a liquid tin solder; Journal of Materials Processing Technology 246 (2017) 69-76 Link
  • Malfait, W.J.; Klemencic, R.; Lang, B.; Rist, T.; Klucka, M.; Zajacz, Z.; Koebel, M.M.; Optimized solder alloy for glass-to-metal joints by simultaneous soldering and anodic bonding; Journal of Materials Processing Technology 236 (2016) 176-182 Link
  • Fromm, A.; Trondl, A.; Strecker, H.; Krappitz, M.; Thissen, D.; Kübler, R.; Aging-effects of polymeric encapsulation on the mechanical characteristics of solar panels and embedded components; Proc. of 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition EU PVSEC 2014; Bokhoven, T.P.; Jäger-Waldau, A.; Helm. P. (Eds.); WIP Wirtschaft und Infrastruktur GmbH & Co Planungs KG, München (2014) 3121-3125 Link

to top