Shot peening is a widely used surface treatment to improve the static and cyclic strength of metal components based on the mechanical strengthening of surface layers and the incorporation of more advantageous compressive residual stresses. In the case of brittle materials, the process was regarded as unpromising and somewhat damaging, and accordingly was not used. Experience suggests that brittle materials like ceramics break at room temperature and do not deform. The studies carried out at the Fraunhofer IWM show that under certain marginal conditions, high residual compressive stress of over 2 GPa can be induced even in brittle ceramic materials. As a result, strength characteristics close to the surface can be improved dramatically in ceramic components, carbide and hard chrome layers, deformation can be offset and thin-walled components can even be formed without cutting.